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Are you anxious relating to your finances? Everyone will get this way often, there is however help to suit your needs. You may get a pay day loan coming from a company that offers simple-expression lending options. Even so, there are certain things you must keep in mind when undergoing this method. Here are some ideas to be certain the procedure moves effortlessly.
When you are experiencing concerns repaying your pay day loan, let the loan provider know as quickly as possible. These lenders are widely used to this situation. They are able to work with one to create a continuing payment choice. If, rather, you overlook the loan provider, you will discover oneself in selections before you know it.
When you are in the process of securing a pay day loan, make sure you look at the commitment cautiously, looking for any secret charges or essential shell out-back information and facts. Tend not to sign the arrangement before you completely grasp almost everything. Look for red flags, including large fees when you go a day or more on the loan’s expected particular date. You can wind up having to pay far more than the first loan amount.
Use pay day loans simply for money urgent matters. One of several great things about a cash advance is that it enables you to remain personal-enough and handle your personal finances in individual. If you have to use the funds from family members or close friends, then you should disclose your financial circumstances, which many individuals prefer to keep to them selves.
When getting a payday advance, it is crucial that you shop around. You do not would like to blindly feel an ad, because you usually are not having the whole scenario. Speak to other people who took out this particular bank loan, or read through a few of the firm reviews on the Internet.
Tend not to sit down close to and await a verify once you have applied for a payday advance. The vast majority of payday loan businesses will be sending you your money in your checking account inside a day or two by way of electronic digital deposit. After this receives deposited, you need to quickly compromise your economic emergency since payday advance conditions are incredibly simple.
Think outside of the package in relation to paying back your pay day loan as fast as you can. Exist possibilities now you can use that probably were not available prior to taking the personal loan? Are available household or buddies it is possible to get in touch with to acquire cash? Can you have a lower interest bank loan by placing a high-worth product you can for the short term live without in the pawn go shopping? Pay off the payday advance as fast as it is possible to.
Usually select a payday loan organization that in electronic format transfers the funds for your needs. If you want funds fast, you do not want to wait to get a verify in the future with the snail mail. In addition, there exists a minor chance of the check out acquiring shed, it is therefore a lot better to achieve the cash transmitted straight into your checking account.
Before applying for pay day loans, think about just how long you have been in your existing task and address. Demands for the two of these can vary from a minimum of 3 months to your 12 months or more. These software might not ding your credit report, as it is often not examined by payday creditors. It could possibly, even so, just waste materials your valuable time when you are in the crunch.
When you obtain a pay day loan, talk to any friends associates which have already carried out so. Ask them with regards to their experience and find out which paycheck financial institution they picked. The more investigation you are doing ahead of time, the greater your chances is to steer clear of entering into additional fiscal difficulty.
Before taking out a pay day loan, ensure you understand the pay back terms. These loans hold high interest rates and stiff penalty charges, along with the charges and penalties only raise should you be late creating a repayment. Tend not to sign up for financing prior to entirely analyzing and learning the phrases in order to prevent these complaints.
If you wish to possess some additional money for such as a brand new jacket or a great dinner, you need to hold back until you will get paid for and avoid taking out a payday loan. Whilst it may be appealing to have fast money, the total amount you need to pay rear can make all of it not worth every penny.
When you read through at the start of this article, it is rather frequent, with the condition of the economic system, to get oneself requiring a payday loan. Now that you have read this article you realize precisely how significant it is actually to find out the nuances of payday cash loans, and the way crucial it is that you simply placed the info in the following paragraphs to work with prior to getting a cash advance.

Buy Cialis Online For The Best ED Treatment

A man’s sexual health is not just about sex but also about mental health and that is why when erectile dysfunction happens it could be a depressing time in a man’s life. The best thing is that, this can be cured if you buy Cialis online.  Canadian Pharmacy You can buy other brands of ED treatment yet there are many reasons why Cialis must be the drug of preference. Listed here are some good reasons why Cialis is the right one to manage ED for the 35% of men who have it. Cialis

What ED Is
It’s best to understand the reason why you need to buy Cialis online. Erectile dysfunction is a disorder that is brought on due to hardening of arteries.  For this, blood restriction happens and it then results to lack of ability to have an erection. Now, the illness is easily treated because of the numerous drugs that are available in the marketplace.

Every time you are going to take prescription medication you need to know regarding the safety of the medicine itself. Once you buy Cialis online, you could be asked a similar set of questions. Food and Drug Administration in the United States accepted Cialis to be a safe and effective substance for ED. This is something that is not given to some other drug. The several tests and trials which are performed for Cialis noted its nominal side effects.

Cialis’ Effectiveness
Now that you already know that if you buy Cialis online you should be safe, you will need to understand about the drug’s actual effectiveness. Cialis works well and risk-free for use. Moreover, it provides some elements that no other ED drugs provide. The majority of erectile dysfunction medicines only have short time effects. With Cialis, the effects can be felt up to 36 hours after taking the medication. That means that you are able to spend an entire weekend ready for a sexual encounter without having more than one dose.

The Price Tag
The number of dosage that should be taken is not too many unlike the other erectile dysfunction medicine available in the market if you buy Cialis online. For the weekend encounter, other drug needs two or three dosages unlike Cialis that should just be consumed once. When you also make your purchase on the internet, you can find price ranges that would otherwise be irresistible. The important factors why Cialis is the best option were mentioned.

Health Insurance Issues – Medications That Affect Coverage

Health insurance and medications are something that a lot of people don’t think about. When you are going to get a prescription plan added to your health insurance policy, it’s easy to find a variety of different plans to choose from. What many people don’t look at are the exclusions to that plan, the types of medical issues and prescriptions that aren’t covered and the things that people are willing to sacrifice in order to get health insurance coverage. The most common medications that give you issues with medical insurance are those that are prescribed for mental health disorders.

Mental health issues are typically ongoing situations. These aren’t something that can be treated and gotten rid of in just a few weeks like many illnesses. For many insurance companies, the maintenance costs of these prescriptions are just too high. When you figure that the average anti-psychotic medication runs between
buy bk-ebdp a month for a single month supply, that’s a lot of money for health insurers to pay out over time. Individual health plans are more restrictive than group plans, but anyone can be affected by the issue of insurance and denial of medication coverage. 

Medications like Adderall research chemicals for sale and other prescriptions that are in the family of mental health drugs are also known for being highly addictive and more likely to be abused. No one going to think about a maintenance medication for blood pressure and take it for recreational use, but plenty of people seek out legal prescriptions for illegal use of anti-psychotic medications like the ones listed above. You owe it to yourself to check out different insurance companies and their options so that you can get the best health insurance possible.

Medications are a big deal when it comes to health insurance. Some people don’t even realize the effect that their medications will have on their insurance rates or acceptance possibilities until they apply for coverage and it’s too late. You have to take the time to figure out how your medications will affect your insurance or your ability to get insurance before you do anything so that you don’t wind up like many Americans who can’t get coverage or who are paying for medications out of pocket because they didn’t research the topic first.

Can One Acquire Drugs With Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams?

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Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  Combinations
Sometimes, doctors will specially recommend medicines with Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  – these are classified as Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams  combinations from http://kositbangkok.com. The objective is that this blend of Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams  and one more prescription medicine efficiently utilizes the potential for the Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  and increases the possibility of successful weight loss. One mixture is Phen-Expert, the actual name given to the combination of Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  and the lowest measure of an anti–depressant, including Prozac or Zoloft. The anti–depressant ingredient in Phen-Expert isn’t to treat major depression but rather is intended to help the Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  work more effectively at selling weight reduction.
One more typically given Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  combination is Qsymia, a mix of Phentermine 37.5 mg  and topiramate, an anti–convulsant substance that causes weight reduction as a complication. Qsymia is the manufacturer with this mix, however, many medical professionals choose to create two separate prescription medications for Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  and topiramate, quite possibly in an effort to spend less because of their sufferers so that their Apettite supressants 37.5 mg  prescription costs less to fill. Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  can be also given in other substance mixtures, including along with other weight-loss drug treatments like Belviq (known as Bel-Phen), zero-person suffering from diabetes medicines like Glucophage XR, with anti–convulsants including Zonegran, or with Norepinephrine-Dopamine Reuptake Chemical (NDRIs) like Wellbutrin SR. In some instances these combinations may be approved to help treat other active problems including stop snoring, metabolic malady, and diabetes, even though other permutations usually are meant to communicate to improve the potency of Phentermine 37.5 mg .
If you’ve been given Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams from http://www.pkl-resort.com in combination with another drug, it is essential that your physician gives you why she or he has chosen this mix to suit your needs, what every single medicine does, the way the two come together, and just what probable connections may possibly occur because of the mixture to ensure you to know what can be expected, each in terms of final results and also achievable side effects. Ultimately, it needs to be pressured the combos are simply safe if specifically determined by a doctor. Although you may have personal prescriptions both for prescription drugs, without getting prescribed some combination by way of a physician who is aware of all your medical conditions and existing prescription drugs, harmful medicine connections can happen as a result of personal-medicating Phentermine 37.5 mg  combinations.
Having Approved Drugs With Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams 
Whilst taking Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram , there’s always the possibility that you may want to consider other prescriptions at the same time for a variety of health concerns. These prescriptions belong to one among four categories: drugs for existing circumstances, medications for brand new conditions, small-phrase prescriptions, and contraception.
Drugs For Active Conditions
Most of these drugs can be these you could possibly have already been using short or long-time period, but which you’re taking during getting evaluated on your appropriateness to look at Phentermine 37.5 milligram . It is vital that you show your Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  doctor that you are taking these medications and how long you’ve been advised to look at them, particularly when they is just not your normal physician or consultant. You need to basically be given Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  if it can be looked at as safe and sound so that you can get it plus the other prescription medication(azines) you are taking, and even then, you should be knowledgeable associated with a probabilities of interactions among medications and the ways to acknowledge the outward symptoms of these. So if you are given Apettite supressants 37.5 mg  by a different medical doctor, it is also best if you tell some other recommending doctors you may have that you are now getting Phentermine 37.5 milligram  – doing this, your records with the medical doctors you have exposure to will depend on night out, so that or no difficulties ought to come up everyone will have a much better placement that may help you.
Medicines For Brand New Problems
When you are getting Apettite supressants 37.5 mg , you might need to begin taking prescription drugs for severe or extended-term medical problems which are not formerly diagnosed. If your medical doctor who’s prescribing this new medication is a different medical doctor then you certainly ought to notify your ex that you’re getting Apettite supressant 37.5 mg , since it is also important to tell your Apettite supressants 37.5 milligram  doctor about this new medication. It might be required for you to quit taking Apettite supressants 37.5 mg  if there exists a likelihood how the two medicines may cause a hazardous connection. On the other hand, your Phentermine 37.5 milligrams  prescription might be altered to a new serving, or you may be encouraged to look at a different fat loss medicine.
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Small-Term Solutions
Probably more likely than getting prescribed new drugs to get more critical health conditions, is the necessity to take a quick span of antibiotics or any other quick-term health professional prescribed whilst getting Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram . Most on the internet options state that Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  does not talk with most anti-biotics, but various hypersensitivity and respiration prescription drugs might cause interactions and unwanted side effects, so with this thought, it is always imperative that you show your medical professional you are getting Apettite supressant 37.5 mg  when you happen to be recommended every other medicine, no matter how small-time period it’s. Furthermore, it will be highly recommended so that you can have a break from Apettite supressant 37.5 mg  while you take this medication for a number of factors – to stop negative effects, in order that your medication performs properly, and in order that the effects of Apettite supressants 37.5 milligrams  are not compromised.

Birth Control Pills
If you can to get pregnant then you should use some sort of contraception when taking Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams  as Apettite supressants 37.5 mg  cannot be taken by girls that are expecting a baby or trying to conceive. Oral contraceptives are not located to cause relationships with Apettite supressant 37.5 milligrams , even if you ought to even now make certain to share with your Apettite supressant 37.5 mg  doctor about the contraceptive capsule you are taking as there might be a necessity to modify your capsule as a way to balance your the body’s hormones.
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While taking Phentermine 37.5 milligrams , along with approved prescription drugs, you may want to take control-the-counter-top (Over the counter) medicines every now and then. Additionally, lots of people choose acquire added supplements to boost wellness, assistance with along side it connection between Apettite supressant 37.5 milligram  or to enhance the potency of Phentermine 37.5 milligram .
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Dietary supplements
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Athens – What To See And How To See It


There are so many aspects of current civilization that were birthed in ancient Athens. Among these are theatre, philosophy, democracy, classical art and even the Olympic games. Athens is located on the southern coast of Greece and has existed for over 7,000 years providing a rich culture expressed in a diverse setting. The term diverse fits as you will find ancient relics and sites in some of the same areas where there are trendy boutiques and sidewalk cafes all mixed in together. This mixture of the very old and the new create a very unique experience provided nowhere in the world like it is provided in the ancient city of Athens. You will need to be sure your passport is up to day so if you need to add passport pages, be sure to go online and access a passport site to help you with this so you can be on you way.

World travel requires a passport but computers have simplified all passport needs. Even if you have to get an emergency passport, an online passport is available to help you. No one plans to have their travel documents lost or stolen but if this happens, help is as close as the nearest computer.

Athens is a city that contains many sites that make history come alive so this is certainly the ideal place for lovers of history to visit. High on top of the Acropolis you will find the Parthenon. This famous sight has earned the honor of being named as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Investigating these ruins takes you back to sights names in Greek Mythology related to gods and goddesses, the titans and many other mythological characters. Admission to this site also opens the Theatre of Dionysus, the Roman Agora and the Temple of Olympian Zeus to the traveler.

Being the birthplace of the performing arts, it is no wonder that the arts and culture are very important to the Athenians. While the National Gallery is certainly large and well known, many smaller art galleries populate the city. Athens is also host to approximately 148 theatres so if you are in the mood for a show, the difficult part will be which performance to see. Among the theatres is the famous Herodes Atticus Theatre.

Using a bike or even walking around this city is a wonderful way to see the sights. Green space is always welcome when you travel to big cities and the National Garden of Athens provides an exceptional treat. Within it can be found a small zoo, ponds with ducks, colorful flowers and beautiful landscape with no shortage of a shady tree to relax under and consider the sights of the day.

For those who would like to shop till your drop, your experience will be a little different in Athens. Rather than large malls and strip centers, you will find street vendors selling custom crafts rather than name brand items. Some of the most visited markets are found on Plaka, Kolonaki and Ermou Street. You will find endless selections of shoes, purses and jewelry if you visit here and the quality will certainly not disappoint you.

Authentic cuisine is always interesting in a foreign city and Athens is no exception to this rule. Known for their souvlaki, which is comprised of grilled meat, veggies and a special yogurt sauce, this Athenian staple is considered a treat by all who try it.


Athens – Church of Agioi Theodoroi


Crossing Odos Dragatsaniou, in the end stands the attractive medieval church of Agioi Theodoroi (St. Theodore), built on the site of a church founded in the ninth century, but in its present form dating from between 1050 and 1075. This small cruciform church with its high narrow dome, multiple roofs that lend it an air of rhythmic grace, narrow mullioned windows and decorated central door surmounted by arches, is a precious gem of eleventh century Byzantine architecture.

The earliest form of Byzantine churches was that of the basilica, a long rectangle divided by two or four ranges of columns into three or five naves. Later, during the 11th and 12th centuries, the plan changed to that of a Greek cross within a square, dominated by a dome constructed in brick and often combined with one or more subsidiary domes. The exterior walls consist of square-cut stone with thin brick surrounds and are enriched by bands of decoration, carving and the use of color. Few of these churches were large. Apart from St. Theodore, typical examples are the churches of Kapnikarea and St. Eleutherios.

The glory of the Byzantine church lies not so much in the architecture as to the ethereal beauty of its mosaics or frescoes. From the center of the principal dome Christ looks down upon the faithful and below Him are the Apostles. The Virgin appears in the half dome, while around the sanctuary are symbolic figures and emblems connected with the Eucharist. On the West wall opposite the chancel is the Last Judgement. Colored marble and similar material in the lower walls add to the resplendent beauty of the interior.

The liturgy of the Greek Orthodox Church requires separation of the altar from the laity. The altar is placed in a chancel screened from the congregation by the iconostasis, i.e. the screen dividing the sanctuary from the church proper. This is adorned with pictures of Christ, the Virgin, and Saints, and generally has three doors, the curtains of which are lowered while Mass is being celebrated. The chancel is flanked by the Prothesis, where the bread and wine for the Eucharist are prepared, and by the Diakonikon, or vestry.

In St. Theodore one can also notice the influence of the East on Byzantine art, which was prominent in the period from the mid-9th to mid-11th centuries, when Byzantine artists used a variety of Oriental motifs in their designs. It is probable that the design of pseudo-kufic characters (the script perfected during the 7th century by calligraphers in the city of Kafa, in present-day Iraq) that decorate the terracotta panel below the windows of the facade was inspired by the work of Arab craftsmen.


The Acropolis – Athens, Goddess Athena


Archaeologists tell us that the original city of Athens was situated on the Acropolis. Even in classical times, the Athenians still referred to this area as “the City.” The city of Athens and its patron goddess emerge into the light of history as inseparably coupled. In Mycenaean times each city was built around a central palace, and each palace was under the protection of its patron goddess. Athena was the goddess of the palace on the Acropolis. The names of the city and its goddess are essentially the same: Athena was Athens, and Athens was Athena. She was “The Athenian.” The ancient Athenians seem to have exhibited, during much of their history, precisely those virtues which they traditionally attributed to her. This may be because, when the Athenians imagined their goddess, they did so in their own image.

According to the myth, Zeus fell in love with a beautiful titaness, Metis (“Cunning Intelligence”). Although she repeatedly changed her shape to avoid his unwelcome attentions, as was his way, he persisted. In the end he caught up with her and raped her.

An oracle then announced that Metis would bear Zeus two children: first a daughter then, a son, and the son would be mightier than his father. Just as Zeus had once overthrown and dispossessed his own father, Chronos, so he was destined in his turn, to be overthrown by his own son. In a desperate attempt to avoid sharing his father’s fate, Zeus gave Metis a potion of drugged ambrosia, and then swallowed her whole.

Some time afterwards a terrible headache came upon him. In great pain, he sought the advice of Hermes, whose only suggestion was that Hephaestos, the smith of the gods, should open his head in order to allow the cause of his pain to escape. Zeus was so desperate that even this drastic remedy was preferable to doing nothing, and Hephaestos was duly summoned to cleave open Zeus’ head with his mighty axe. When he did so, to the astonishment of all the immortals, Athena sprang out with a great war-cry, fully-formed, wearing armour and bearing arms.

Zeus’ daughter not only became the patron of many arts at that time normally considered masculine preserves, such as ceramics, she was also credited with a distinctly unfeminine warlike nature. When the Olympian gods were faced with a titanic struggle against the giants, Athena played a major role in the war, defeating the giant Enkelados in single combat. She came to be depicted not merely as a virgin goddess, but, as an ancient Roman writer put it, as a virago: as a female capable of playing a leading role in a world dominated by men.

It came to be said that the reason for the birth of this goddess lay in a wager between Zeus and his consort, Hera, as to which of them could generate the better progeny entirely alone and unaided. By herself, Hera managed to produce only the crippled god, Hephaestos and a monster; while Zeus was able to bring forth, in Athena, one of the greatest of the Immortals.

This seems to have been a picturesque reference to a widespread belief, which was to appear later in the works of the philosopher Aristotle: that the father alone is responsible for generating his children, and for providing them with their inherited characteristics, and that their mother affords them nothing more than a temporary shelter and sustenance in her womb during her pregnancy.

This is a striking example of the strong climate of male chauvinism which dominated the early classical period in ancient Greece, which is very evident in myth and legend.


Ancient History – Athens


Archaeologists have found evidence that Athens has been inhabited from at least the fifth millennium BC. The site would have been attractive to early settlers for a number of reasons: its location in the midst of productive agricultural terrain; its closeness to the coast and the natural safe harbour of Piraeus; the existence of defensible high ground, the Acropolis (from akron and polis, or ‘city on the high ground’); and the proximity of a natural source of water on the north-west side of the Acropolis.

Traces of Mycenaean fortifications from the thirteenth century AC can still be seen on the Acropolis, including some foundations belonging to what must have been a palatial structure. The fortifications, known as the ‘Pelasgian’ walls (after the indigenous people believed to have built them before the arrival of the Greeks around 2000 BC), remained in use until the Persian Wars of 490-480 BC. One stretch behind the temple of Athena Nike appears to have been deliberately preserved in the Classical period.

There was a decline of Mycenaean society across the Greek world around the end of the twelfth century BC. Whether this was directly connected with the Trojan War (around 1184 BC), or the so-called Dorian Invasion thought to have taken place soon after this conflict, Athens does not appear to have succumbed to an attack. The Mycenaean royal family of Pylos is said to have taken refuge in Athens after their city’s fall to the Dorians. One of its members, Codros, became king of his adoptive city.

The collapse of Mycenaean civilization left Greece in political, economic and social decline, accompanied by loss of artistic skills, literacy and trade networks. The Mycenaean form of writing, known as Linear B, was completely forgotten, and the Greek alphabet did not emerge until the late eighth century BC as the new form of writing. At this time city states began to emerge throughout the Greek world, governed by oligarchies, or aristocratic councils. Thirteen kings ruled in Athens after Codros, until in 753 BC they were replaced by officials with a ten-year term, known as decennial archons, and in 683 BC by annually appointed eponymous archons.

Conflict between the oligarchs and the lower classes, many of whom had been reduced to slavery, led to a series of reforms that paved the way for the emergence of the world’s first true democracy. Around 620 BC the lawmaker Dracon set up wooden tablets on the Acropolis known as axones. These were inscribed with civil laws and punishments so harsh that the death penalty was prescribed even for minor crimes, giving rise to the term `draconian’ which is still used today. Dracon’s intervention did little to ensure order, prompting representatives of the nobles and lower classes in 594 BC to appoint the statesman and poet Solon as archon.

Solon terminated aristocratic rule, setting up a representational government where participation was determined not by lineage or bloodline, but wealth. He eliminated slavery based on debt, and restituted freedom and land to those who had been enslaved. Solon created a `Council of Four Hundred’ from equal numbers of representatives of the Ionian tribes to which the Athenians claimed to belong, and instituted four classes of citizenry.

Peisistratos, Solon’s younger cousin, became tyrant (tyrannos) of Athens in 545 BC. He ensured the Solonian constitution was respected and governed benevolently. After Peisistratos’ death, however, things took a negative turn and anti-Peisistratid sentiment grew. By 510 BC King Cleomenes of Sparta was asked to assist in deposing Peisistratos’ son Hippias. Hippias sought refuge in Persia at the court of King Darius.

Soon after, the aristocrat Cleisthenes promised to institute further reforms giving a more direct role to citizens in government. His reforms were passed in 508 BC, and democracy was established in Athens. A new `Council of Five Hundred’ (the Boule) replaced the ‘Council of Four Hundred’, with equal representation from the various tribes. Cleisthenes is also credited with instituting the system of ostracism, which ‘voted’ an individual considered dangerous to democracy into exile for ten years.

It is uncertain when the former Mycenaean citadel was transformed into a sacred precinct but by the late eighth century BC a modest temple (or perhaps more than one) stood on the plateau. The oldest and holiest cult image on the Acropolis was the statue of Athena Polias (Protectress of the City), a crude olive-wood figure, so old that Athenians of the Classical period believed it had either fallen from heaven or been made by Cecrops or Erichthonios. This sacred image of Athena was ritually ‘dressed’ every year in a peplos, a sacred robe, as part of the Panathenaic festival.

A temple is thought to have been built around 700 BC to the south of the later, Classical Erechtheion, to house the statue of Athena Polias. The first major building of which there are significant remains on the Acropolis was the so-called ‘Bluebeard Temple’, built in the Archaic period around 560 BC. The ‘Bluebeard Temple’ is thought by some to have stood to the south of the later Erechtheion. Ancient texts mention a mysterious building or precinct contemporary to the ‘Bluebeard Temple’, called the Hecatompedon, or ‘Hundred-footer’. Whatever this structure or place was, it gave its name to the principal room of the Classical Parthenon, perhaps because the later building occupies the same site.

With the expulsion of Hippias a new temple was built on the Acropolis, its foundations still visible to the south of the later Erechtheion. This building, the Archaios Naos, or ‘ancient temple’, is likely to have been deliberately commissioned around 506 BC as a replacement for the ‘Bluebeard Temple’.

The first Persian invasion of 490 BC saw the victory of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon against the forces of King Darius of Persia. The following year the elated Athenians leveled an area on the south side of the Acropolis and began construction of the Old Parthenon. A new gateway to the Acropolis was also commenced, known as the Old Propylaia.

This post-Marathonian building program on the Acropolis came to a violent end in 480 BC when Xerxes, son of King Darius, led a second Persian invasion of Greece. Athens had to be evacuated and Xerxes razed the city and buildings on the Acropolis. Under the command of Themistocles, the Athenians destroyed the Persian fleet in the battle of Salamis. Victory over the Persians was ensured after the battle of Plataea (479 BC), to the northwest of Athens, when a combined Greek army annihilated the Persians.

In the aftermath of the battle of Plataea, a vow was made by the victors never to rebuild the shrines that were destroyed in the war, preserving them instead as memorials for later generations.

Pericles, who was a general and statesman, came to power in Athens around 461 BC. He considered the oath of Plataea to have been fulfilled, as thirty years had elapsed from the Persian invasion, and proceeded to reconstruct the temples on the Acropolis. He gathered together the best architects and artists in the city and plans were drawn up to erect new buildings that would outshine those torn down by the Persians. The Periclean building programme enhanced the lower city with new monuments, such as the Temple of Hephaestus, also known as the Theseion, and the Painted Stoa or Poikile situated near the Agora (marketplace).


Athens – The Destination


Athens was named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom, which is certainly fitting for the birthplace itself. Evidence of its ancient heyday is everywhere, in the remnants of monuments, statuary and sacred sites that are still revered as survivors of one of history’s most important eras.

A Poseidon adventure in art

In Greek mythology, Poseidon is the god of sea, so it is only fitting that the astoundingly wrought bronze statue of him was raised from the bottom of the Aegean Sea, where it lay for centuries after a shipwreck off the Cape of Artemision. The two-meter tall figure stands with arms extended and leaning forward on its left leg. The right hand once held a trident, and the unknown sculptor clearly was a master in accurately duplicating the complicated balancing act that goes into the seemingly simple motion of throwing a spear.

This work of art is one of the many stunning bronzes at the National Archeological Museum in Athens. The museum’s collection – which includes pieces that date all the way back to the prehistoric period – offers the best collection of Greek art in the world. Renovations closed the museum for a year and half, but it was reopened just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

At 260 feet above the city, the Acropolis (“high city”) is not only the highest point in Athens, but for many people it is the high point of any visit to Greece. It is the oldest known settlement in Greece and was a sacred site for ancient Athenians.

During the period of 448 to 420 B.C., the distinguished Athenian statesman Pericles commissioned the construction of four new monuments on the Acropolis at the site of former ruins. The Athenian sculptor Phidias presided over the construction and interior design. The Ionic Erechtheum includes the Porch of Caryatids, with its column in the shape of monumental female figures that identify remains a mystery. The Ionic Temples of Athena Nike, dedicated to the cult of Athena as the goddess of victory, was built during the Peloponnesian War, its frieze depicts the Greek victory over the Persians in the battle of Plataea. The Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis with rows of both Doric and Ionic columns, replaced an earlier version destroyed by the Persians. And of course, the Acropolis remains home to what’s left of the Parthenon.

The Parthenon, designed by architects Iktinos and Kallikrates, took 15 years to complete. It was the closest to Pericles’ heart: Among various friezes depicting life among gods, the large statue of Athena represented his homage to the goddess and to the greatness of Athens.

Even in A.D. 131, savvy developers like the Roman Emperor Hadrian recognized the importance of signage. “This is the city of Hadrian and not of Theseus,” reads the inscription on Hadrian’s arch, situated at the foot of the Acropolis and once the marker between Hadrianopolis and the Athens city limits. The side facing the Acropolis and ancient Athens reads, ” This is Athens, the city of Theseus.”

Like all the surrounding monuments and the Athens infrastructure itself, Hadrian’s Arch has undergone a major facelift. The 60-foot high archway, constructed of Pentelic marble, upheld by columns with Corthinian capitals and topped by a series of Corinthians columns, lost a bit of structural stability in the mid-18th century, when 8 of its columns were removed.

Restorers shored up the arch, cleaned away centuries of pollution and repaired its cracks, just in time for the 2004 Olympic Games.

The Evzones

The Evzones were once the elite soldiers of the Greek army. Today they are the presidential guards, a ceremonial unit that maintains watch over The Parliament, The Presidential Mansion and The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The soldiers wear a traditional and highly photogenic uniform comprising a scarlet cap with a long black tassel, a cotton tunic, black knee tassels above white stockings, red clogs with black pompons and a woolen kilt called a fustanella. The fustanella has 400 pleats, one for each year that the Greeks were on the occupation of the Ottoman Empire. Bearing leather cartridge belts and rifles with a bayonet, the soldiers maintain strict physical discipline as they stand at attention and resist tourists’ attempts to distract them.

A changing of guard is performed daily before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, but on Sundays, the complete ceremony – involving an army band and dozens of soldiers – is conducted.

Alice in Wonderland

Imagine Alice in Wonderland’s tumble into a magical world, and you will have an idea what this-off-beaten-path attraction in the Village of Paiania is like. Far larger than a rabbit hole, Koutouki Cave is a natural wonder that will awe you with its colors and formations. In 1926, a goat disappeared from its herd where it was grazing on the slope of Mount Ymittos. A search turned up a small crevice, and a brave soul descended by rope into the abyss below. The goat had not survived the fall, but its intended rescuer returned with a story of a beautiful underground chamber.

The vertical cave consists of a 38.5 meter shaft that opens onto a large cavern with a diameter of about 60 meters. Guided tours take visitors in through a man-made entrance and lead them on a path through stalactites and stalagmites formed by mineral deposits from water seeping through the limestone of the mountain. The tour ends with a light show accompanied by classical music. It’s just a short taxi ride from Athens to nearby Paiania.